In recent years I have received ever more frequent requests to add the "citation of Internet sources" to the APA Format and APA Style pages on my Writing Help Central Website.
Accordingly, the following is my summary of the key points for including APA citations in a paper, as per the APA Publication Manual.
Please take note that the material below is based on my understanding of the APA standards that I consulted when I wrote this. If you have a complex citation situation, please check the APA Publication Manual.
APA Citation of Sources On the Internet
Authors using and citing sources on the World Wide Web (i.e. Internet) should observe the following two guidelines:
Documents available via the Internet include articles from periodicals (e.g. newspapers, newsletters, journals, etc.); They may stand on their own (e.g. research papers, government reports , online books, brochures, etc.); or they may be in Web-based format (e.g. Web pages, newsgroups, blogs, etc.).
Following are the key points with respect to citing Web sources:
Sample APA Citations - Internet References
Following are example citations for some of the more common citations of online sources. (All sources cited are fictitious):
Internet Published Article Based On Printed Source Article:
Waterston, F., Dixon M. (2007). Cuisine as a cultural and religious marker [Electronic version]. National Journal of Anthropology, 7, 125-132.
Internet Article In An Internet-Only Journal:
Wiltshire, R. D. (2006, May 5). Changing thinking patterns to reduce depression. Psychology For the Future, 3, Article 0012. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www. psychologyforthefuture.org/articles/art0012.html
Internet Article In An Internet-Only Newsletter:
Perez, A. R., Winters, S., Jackson D.B., et al. (2005, June). Using video to increase conversion rates. Marketing News Online (05-06). Retrieved October 15, 2006, from http://www.marketingonline.com/newsletters/Jun05.html
Internet Report Posted Online
Montreal Region Task Force On Crime, Interim Report Number Two. (2006, November). Statistics and trends in crime. Retrieved February 12, 2007, from http://montrealislandcrime.qc.ca
Document On Government or University Web site
Bank of Montreal,Business Coach Series, Developing Your Business Plan, Retrieved August 5, 2007,from Government of Canada, Canada Business Web site: http:// bsa.canadabusiness.ca/gol/bsa/site.nsfensu07140.html#a3
Report From Private Organization - On Their Web Site
Rassmussen, Inc. (2005, October 28). Knowledge Process Outsourcing in Asia, Retrieved July 20, 2007 from http://www.rassmussen.com/papers/kpoindia.pdf
Message Posted To A Newsgroup
Frentzen, W. (2006, December 15). The money is in the list [Msg 127]. Message posted to news://imf.internet.marketing
Gravely, S. (2007, June 12). Re: Letter writing for small businesses. [The Write Place blog]. Message posted to
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